The Canon
of Scripture...


Who Fired The Decisive Shot?


I have read many Protestant articles regarding the origins of the Canons of both the Old and New Testaments. They all fell short of the truth of what really happened. What they chose to relate, only told half of the story and though at first glance, it seemed to enhance their position, it was laced with inaccuracies.

As I have pointed out in another page on this website, called,
'Is
Half of the Story Sufficient',
"
HALF of the TRUTH is NO TRUTH at all."

As you probably know, Catholic Bibles have 73 books, 46 in the Old Testament, and 27 in the New Testament. Protestant Bibles have 66 books with only 39 in the Old Testament. The books missing from Protestant Bibles are: Tobit, Judith, Baruch, Wisdom, Sirach, 1 and 2 Maccabees, and parts of Esther and Daniel. They are called the 'Deuterocanonicals' by Catholics and 'Apocrypha' by Protestants. Martin Luther, without any authority whatsoever, removed those seven books and placed them in an appendix during the reformation. They remained in the appendix of Protestant Bibles until about 1826, and then they were removed altogether.
Please see, "
The Origin of Sola Scriptura", found elsewhere on this website for the details of Martin Luther's actions in doing this.
Please be mindful of the fact that those seven books had been in Bibles used by all Christians from the very foundation of Christianity.


A short history lesson...
Hellenistic Greek was the language of the day during the time of Christ. This was due to the fact that Alexander the Great had conquered the region several hundred years before. The Hebrew language was on its way out, and there was a critical need for a translation of the Hebrew Old Testament for dispersed Greek speaking Jews. This translation, called the Septuagint, or LXX, was completed by Jewish scholars in about 148 B.C. and it had all of the books, including the seven removed by Martin Luther over 1650 years later. The New Testament has about 350 references to Old Testament verses. By careful examination, scholars have determined that 300 of these are from the Septuagint and the rest are from the Hebrew Old Testament
*. They have shown that Jesus Christ Himself, quoted from the Septuagint. Early Christians used the Septuagint to support Christian teachings. The Jews were upset that these new Christians were using their translation for Christian advantage.
*Dictionary of the Bible, John L. McKenzie, pg 787.

About 90-95 A.D., or several decades after the beginning of Christianity, the Jews called a council to deal with the matter. In this council, called the "Council of Jamnia
*", Jewish Pharisees, who survived the devastating destruction of Jerusalem and of their temple in 70 A.D., decided to remove books that were helpful to Christians. They removed the seven books, using various reasons as their "authorization" to do so. Keep in mind, that the Greek speaking Jews had been using the Septuagint for well over two centuries by this time. It was the Bible of the Greek speaking "Bereans" of Acts 17:10-15 for which Protestants like to quote to try to "prove" their false man-made doctrine of "Sola Scriptura".
Some non-Catholics charge that the seven books were not added to the Septuagint until the fourth century. If that were true, how could the Council of Jamnia have removed them in the first century if they were not there?
By the actions of Protestant reformers in acceptance of the 39 book Old Testament, which was declared the whole of Scripture by the Jewish Pharisees at Jamnia, the Protestants have made it tantamount to approval of the Pharisaic Jews who rejected Jesus and persecuted the Church. In doing so they have shown that they believed that the Jews had more authority in deciding the Canon of Scripture than did the Christian Church that Jesus Christ founded, which by the time of the Council of Jamnia, had existed for about 60 years. A rejection of the authority of Christ's Church, then as well as now, is a rejection of Him.
Please see, "
The Deuters", elsewhere on this website for more details regarding the actions of this council.
Christians continued using the Septuagint with all of the books
**, and they ignored the decision of the Jewish Council. About 1450 years later, Martin Luther, on his own recognizance and without any authority, removed those seven books, claiming the decision of that Jewish Council was his "authority" to do so. At this point, I am forced to ask, "If the Jews called a council next month with the expressed desire to remove Isaiah because it supports the virgin birth in Isaiah 7:14, and Jeremiah, for various reasons which support Christian beliefs, and they did it, would the Protestants in turn support the decision of this new Jewish Council and remove the same books from their King James Bible?" If not, what are their reasons for not doing so? After all, they have already set a precedent. What is the difference between almost 1450 years and almost 2000?

*Jamnia is a town in western Israel, which is also spelled Jamniah, Javneh, Jabneel, or Yibna.
**The Septuagint including the Deuterocanonicals can be found here
.

For the first 300 years of Christianity, there was no Bible as we know it today. Christians had the Old Testament Septuagint, and literally hundreds of other books from which to choose. The Catholic Church realized early on that she had to decide which of these books were inspired and which ones weren't. The debates raged between theologians, Bishops, and Church Fathers, for several centuries as to which books were inspired and which ones weren't. In the meantime, several Church Councils or Synods, were convened to deal with the matter, notably, Rome in 382, Hippo in 393, and Carthage in 397 and 419. The debates sometimes became bitter on both sides. One of the most famous was between St. Jerome, who felt the seven books were not canonical, and St. Augustine who said they were. Protestants who write about this will invariably mention St. Jerome and his opposition, and conveniently omit the support of St. Augustine. I must point out here that Church Father's writings are not infallible statements, and their arguments are merely reflections of their own private opinions. When some say St. Jerome was against the inclusion of the seven books, they are merely showing his personal opinion of them. Everyone is entitled to his own opinion. However, A PERSONS PRIVATE OPINION DOES NOT CHANGE THE TRUTH AT ALL. There are always three sides to every story, this side, that side, and the side of truth. Whether Jerome's position, or Augustine's position was the correct position, it had to be settled by a third party, and that third party was the Catholic Church.

Now the story had a dramatic change, as the Pope stepped in to settle the matter. In concurrence with the opinion of St. Augustine, and being prompted by the Holy Spirit, Pope St. Damasus I, at the Council of Rome in 382, issued a decree appropriately called, "The Decree of Damasus", in which he listed the canonical books of both the Old and New Testaments. He then asked St. Jerome to use this canon and to write a new Bible translation which included an Old Testament of 46 books, which were all in the Septuagint, and a New Testament of 27 books.
ROME HAD SPOKEN, THE ISSUE WAS SETTLED.

"THE CHURCH RECOGNIZED ITS IMAGE IN THE INSPIRED BOOKS OF THE BIBLE. THAT IS HOW IT DETERMINED THE CANON OF SCRIPTURE." Fr. Ken Baker

The decisive shot had been fired.

St. Jerome acquiesced under obedience (Hebrews 13:17) and began the translation, and completed it in 404 A.D.. In 405, his new Latin Vulgate
* was published for the first time.

*The word "vulgate" means, "The common language of the people, or the vernacular".

The Decree of Pope St. Damasus I, Council of Rome. 382 A.D....

ST. DAMASUS 1, POPE, THE DECREE OF DAMASUS:

It is likewise decreed: Now, indeed, we must treat of the divine Scriptures: what the universal Catholic Church accepts and what she must shun.
The list of the Old Testament begins: Genesis, one book; Exodus, one book: Leviticus, one book; Numbers, one book; Deuteronomy, one book; Jesus Nave, one book; of Judges, one book; Ruth, one book; of Kings, four books; Paralipomenon, two books; One Hundred and Fifty Psalms, one book; of Solomon, three books: Proverbs, one book; Ecclesiastes, one book; Canticle of Canticles, one book; likewise,
Wisdom, one book; Ecclesiasticus (Sirach), one book; Likewise, the list of the Prophets: Isaiah, one book; Jeremias, one book; along with Cinoth, that is, his Lamentations; Ezechiel, one book; Daniel, one book; Osee, one book; Amos, one book; Micheas, one book; Joel, one book; Abdias, one book; Jonas, one book; Nahum, one book; Habacuc, one book; Sophonias, one book; Aggeus, one book; Zacharias, one book; Malachias, one book. Likewise, the list of histories: Job, one book; Tobias, one book; Esdras, two books; Esther, one book; Judith, one book; of Maccabees, two books.
Likewise, the list of the Scriptures of the New and Eternal Testament, which the holy and Catholic Church receives: of the Gospels, one book according to Matthew, one book according to Mark, one book according to Luke, one book according to John. The Epistles of the Apostle Paul, fourteen in number: one to the Romans, two to the Corinthians, one to the Ephesians, two to the Thessalonians, one to the Galatians, one to the Philippians, one to the Colossians, two to Timothy, one to Titus one to Philemon, one to the Hebrews. Likewise, one book of the Apocalypse of John. And the Acts of the Apostles, one book. Likewise, the canonical Epistles, seven in number: of the Apostle Peter, two Epistles; of the Apostle James, one Epistle; of the Apostle John, one Epistle; of the other John, a Presbyter, two Epistles; of the Apostle Jude the Zealot, one Epistle. Thus concludes the canon of the New Testament.
Likewise it is decreed: After the announcement of all of these prophetic and evangelic or as well as apostolic writings which we have listed above as Scriptures, on which, by the grace of God, the Catholic Church is founded, we have considered that it ought to be announced that although all the Catholic Churches spread abroad through the world comprise but one bridal chamber of Christ, nevertheless, the holy Roman Church has been placed at the forefront not by the conciliar decisions of other Churches, but has received the primacy by the evangelic voice of our Lord and Savior, who says: "You are Peter, and upon this rock I will build My Church, and the gates of hell will not prevail against it; and I will give to you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you shall have bound on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you shall have loosed on earth shall be loosed in heaven."
This list of 46 Old Testament and 27 New Testament books was reconfirmed in the Council of Carthage in 397 A.D.. St. Jerome's translation, "The Latin Vulgate"
*, is to this day, the official Bible of the Catholic Church. The Bibles which Catholics use today, have the same 46 books in the Old Testament as they have had since before the beginning of Christianity.
*The Latin Vulgate can be found here.


I have not seen a Protestant writing giving recognition to Pope St. Damasus I, or of even the barest mention of his decree, or of the Council of Rome. This is more than half of the truth which is "conveniently" left out of Protestant arguments. See? Half of the truth really is no truth at all.



The Council of Hippo in 393 reaffirmed the canon put forth by Pope Damasus I...

AD 393:
Council of Hippo. "It has been decided that besides the canonical Scriptures nothing be read in church under the name of divine Scripture.
But the canonical Scriptures are as follows: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua the Son of Nun, Judges, Ruth, the Kings, four books, the Chronicles, two books, Job, the Psalter, the five books of Solomon (included
Wisdom and Ecclesiastes (Sirach)), the twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, Ezra, two books, Maccabees, two books."
(canon 36 A.D. 393). At about this time St. Jerome started using the Hebrew text as a source for his translation of the Old Testament into the Latin Vulgate.


The Third Council of Carthage reaffirmed anew, the Canon put forth by Pope Damasus I...

AD 397:
Council of Carthage III. "It has been decided that nothing except the canonical Scriptures should be read in the Church under the name of the divine Scriptures. But the canonical Scriptures are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, Paralipomenon, two books, Job, the Psalter of David, five books of Solomon (Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs,
Wisdom, Sirach), twelve books of the Prophets, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Daniel, Ezekiel, Tobit, Judith, Esther, two books of Esdras, two books of the Maccabees."
(canon 47 A.D. 397).

It is to be noted that the book of Baruch was considered by some Church Fathers to be a part of the book of Jeremiah and as such was not listed separately by them.



The Fourth Council of Carthage in 419 again reaffirmed the Canons as defined in previous councils...

CANON XXIV. (Greek xxvii.)
"That nothing be read in church besides the Canonical Scripture.
ITEM, that besides the Canonical Scriptures nothing be read in church under the name of divine Scripture. But the Canonical Scriptures are as follows: * Genesis * Exodus * Leviticus * Numbers * Deuteronomy * Joshua the Son of Nun * The Judges * Ruth * The Kings (4 books) * The Chronicles (2 books) * Job * The Psalter * The Five books of Solomon
(includes Wisdom and Sirach) * The Twelve Books of the Prophets * Isaiah * Jeremiah * Ezechiel * Daniel * Tobit * Judith * Esther * Ezra (2 books) * Maccabees (2books).
The New Testament: * The Gospels (4 books) * The Acts of the Apostles (1 book) * The Epistles of Paul (14) * The Epistles of Peter, the Apostle (2) * The Epistles of John the Apostle (3) * The Epistles of James the Apostle (1) * The Epistle of Jude the Apostle (1) * The Revelation of John (1 book).
Let this be sent to our brother and fellow bishop, [Pope] Boniface, and to the other bishops of those parts, that they may confirm this canon, for these are the things which we have received from our fathers to be read in church."
[This is Canon xxxvj. of Hippo., 393. The last phrase allowing the reading of the "passions of the Martyrs" on their Anniversaries is omitted from the African code.]


The Council of Florence, also called Basel, 1431-1445, was yet another Council which confirmed the Canons of both testaments of the Bible...

SESSION 11 4 February 1442:
"We, therefore, to whom the Lord gave the task of feeding Christ's sheep', had abbot Andrew carefully examined by some outstanding men of this sacred council on the articles of the faith, the sacraments of the church and certain other matters pertaining to salvation. At length, after an exposition of the catholic faith to the abbot, as far as this seemed to be necessary, and his humble acceptance of it, we have delivered in the name of the Lord in this solemn session, with the approval of this sacred ecumenical council of Florence, the following true and necessary doctrine. Most firmly it believes, professes and preaches that the one true God, Father, Son and holy Spirit, is the creator of all things that are, visible and invisible, who, when he willed it, made from his own goodness all creatures, both spiritual and corporeal, good indeed because they are made by the supreme good, but mutable because they are made from nothing, and it asserts that there is no nature of evil because every nature, in so far as it is a nature, is good. It professes that one and the same God is the author of the old and the new Testament -- that is, the law and the prophets, and the gospel -- since the saints of both testaments spoke under the inspiration of the same Spirit.
It accepts and venerates their books, whose titles are as follows. Five books of Moses, namely Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, four books of Kings, two of Paralipomenon, Esdras, Nehemiah,
Tobit, Judith, Esther, Job, Psalms of David, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Baruch, Ezechiel, Daniel; the twelve minor prophets, namely Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi; two books of the Maccabees; the four gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John; fourteen letters of Paul, to the Romans, two to the Corinthians, to the Galatians, to the Ephesians, to the Philippians, two to the Thessalonians, to the Colossians, two to Timothy, to Titus, to Philemon, to the Hebrews; two letters of Peter, three of John, one of James, one of Jude; Acts of the Apostles; Apocalypse of John."

The Council of Florence was held over 100 years before the Council of Trent, and about 80 years before the start of the reformation.

The Council of Trent 1546-1565, the longest lasting Council in Church history.

AD 1546:
The Catholic Council of Trent, called to counter changes made by Martin Luther, again reaffirmed the canonicity of all 46 books of the Old Testament. Some Protestant reformers who attended, tried to get the Church to accept the list of books which the Jewish rabbis had chosen at Jamnia.
The Church refused and upheld her teaching from Pope Damasus I, and the Council of Florence. As a result, Protestants have the same New Testament books as Catholics, but their Old Testament differs because it does not contain the books rejected by the rabbis at Jamnia, and much later, rejected by Martin Luther.
It is interesting that for 1500 years all Christians accepted the same canon for the Old Testament. Only in the last 480 years, since the reformation, has there been disagreement from Protestants.



Here are some of the claims made by Protestants regarding the finalizing of the canon of Scripture...

1. God passed the canons directly to man.
Okay, what men? Who, what , where, when and why?
Documentary proof please. How do you know this? Show me the Bible verse? Show me the list as passed down by GOD?


2. Luther did not remove the 7 books, the Jews did at Jamnia, so they weren't there to begin with.
If they were never there to begin with, then how do you explain the fact that they are, and always have been, in the Latin Vulgate, which has been in use by the Catholic Church for over 1500 years?
Explain why so many history books are wrong, by saying Luther removed them during the reformation? I must ask also, "By what authority does a Jewish Council, which was convened decades after the dawn of Christianity, have any claim regarding the nature of Christian doctrine?"


3. The Council of Trent in 1546-1565 "added" the 7 books.
If so, then how could Luther have removed them 20 years earlier if they were not there?
How could Trent have added them if they were already in the Latin Vulgate from 404 A.D.?


4. Jesus Christ did not reference the Deuterocanonical books, so they cannot be canonical.
Well, let us see just which books He did reference...

In...
Matthew 4:4, He referred to Deuteronomy 8:3
Matthew 4:7, He referred to Deuteronomy 6:16
Matthew 4:10, He referenced Deuteronomy 6:13 and 10:20
Matthew 6:10, He referenced 1Maccabees 3:60
Matthew 6:12, He referenced Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) 28:2
Matthew 6:13, He referenced Sirach 33:1
Matthew 7:12, and Luke 6:31, He referenced Tobit 4:16
Matthew 9:13, He quoted Hosea 6:6
Matthew 11:25, He quoted Tobit 7:18
Matthew 12:42, He quoted the Book of Wisdom itself
Matthew 13:43, He quoted Wisdom 3:7
Matthew 16:18, He quoted Wisdom 16:13
Matthew 22:32, He quoted Exodus 3:6
Matthew 22:37, He quoted Deuteronomy 6:5
Matthew 22:39, He quoted Leviticus 19:18
Matthew 22:44, He quoted Psalms 110:1
Matthew 24:16, He quoted 1Maccabees 2:28
Mark 4:5,16-17, He quoted Sirach 40:15
Mark 7:6-8, He quoted Isaiah 29:13
Mark 9:47-48, He quoted Judith 16:17
Luke 13:29, He quoted Baruch 4:37
Luke 21:24, He quoted Sirach 28:18
John 1:3, He quoted Wisdom 9:1
John 3:13, He quoted Baruch 3:29
John 4:48, He quoted Wisdom 8:8
John 5:18, He quoted Wisdom 2:16
John 6:35-59, He quoted Sirach 24:21
John 14:23, He referenced Sirach 2:15-16, (Septuagint) or Sirach 2:18 (Confraternity).
John 15:6, He referenced Wisdom 4:5

He quoted Deuteronomy, Hosea, Exodus, Leviticus, Isaiah, and Psalms, as I have listed here, and there are more, but He did not quote all of the books of the Old Testament.

Of these books, neither Jesus Christ nor the Apostles referenced:
Song of Songs, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Obadiah, Zephaniah, Judges, 1Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Lamentatations, and Nahum.
Does this make these books any less canonical simply because they were not referenced by them?

However, did you notice that I have referenced six of the Deuterocanonical books in my list, Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Sirach, Baruch and 1Maccabees? As pointed out above, the Septuagint was referenced by Christ and the Apostles, many more times than they referenced the Hebrew Old Testament, and the Septuagint had all 46 books. These four references lend much credibility to the books removed by Luther, and to the Greek Septuagint.


The Deuteroncanonical book of Wisdom has, however, a stunning prophecy of Jesus Christ, which adds immensely to its canonicity...
"
Therefore let us lie in wait for the righteous; because he is not for our turn, and he is clean contrary to our doings: he upbraided us with our offending the law, and objecteth to our infamy the transgressions of our education. He professeth to have the knowledge of GOD: and he calleth himself the child of the Lord. He was made to reprove our thoughts. He is grevious unto us even to behold: for his life is not like other men's, his ways are of another fashion. We are esteemed of him as counterfeits: he abstaineth from our ways as from filthiness: he pronounceth the end of the just to be blessed, and maketh his boast that GOD is his Father. Let us see if his words be true; and let us prove what shall happen in the end of him. For if the just man be the Son of GOD, he will help him, and deliver him from the hand of his enemies. Let us examine him with despitefulness and torture, that we may know his meekness and prove his patience. Let us condemn him with a shameful death: for by his own saying he shall be respected." Wisdom 2:12-20, Septuagint.

See Matthew 27:42-43


5. There is no New Testament reference to any of the disputed books.
As I pointed out in the previous question, this is absolutely not true as there are several references to the "Deuterocanonicals", and at least three from "Apocrypha" which I have found...

Bible references (N.T.) to Apocryphal books:

1. Jude 1:9, Yet when Michael the archangel was fiercely disputing with the devil about the body of Moses, he did not venture to bring against him an accusation of blasphemy, but said, "May the Lord rebuke thee."
This is found in the Apocryphal book, "The Assumption of Moses".

2. Jude 1:14, Now of these also Enoch, the seventh from Adam, prophesied, saying, "Behold the Lord has come with thousands of His holy ones..." This prophecy is from the Apocryphal Book of "Enoch", 1:9.

3. 2Tim 3:8, "Just as Jannes and Jambres resisted Moses, so these men also resist the truth, for they are corrupt in mind, reprobate as regards the faith." Although this is a reference to Ex 7:11, the 'magicians' of Pharaoh, they are not named in Exodus. They are found in the Apocryphal book "Gospel of Nicodemus" 5:1. They are also found in the "Narrative of Aeneas Account of the Suffering of the Lord Jesus Christ," 5:4.


Bible references (N.T.) to Deuterocanonical books of the Old Testament: These references show legitimacy to these books that Protestants rejected. They also show that the seven books were indeed in the Septuagint at the time these references were written in the first century.

Matt 2:16, "...and he sent and slew...who were two years old and under..." Found in Wis 11:8.

Matt 7:12, Luke 6:31, "...all that you wish men to do to you, even so do you also to them...".
Found in Tobit 4:16

Matt 9:36, "...sheep without a shepherd." Found in Judith 11:19

Matt 11:25, "...Lord of heaven and earth...". Found in Tobit 7:18

Matt 12:42, "...Wisdom of Solomon..." Refers to the Book of Wisdom

Matt 13:43, "Then the just will shine forth...". Found in Wisdom 3:7

Matt 16:18, "...gates of hell...". Found in Wis 16:13

Matt 18:15, "But if thy brother sin against thee...". Similar to Sirach 19:13

Matt 23:24, the story of the seven husbands who all died. Found in Tobit 3:8 and 7:11

Matt 24:16, "...flee to the mountains...". Found in 1Maccabees 2:28

Matt 25:36, "...sick and you visited me...". Similar to Sirach 7:39.

Matt 27:42, "...if He is the King of Israel, let Him come down now from the cross...".
Similar to Wisdom 2:18-20.

Matt 27:43, If He is GOD's Son let GOD deliver Him. Found in Wisdom 2:18

Mark 4:16-17, seeds on rocky ground. Found in Sirach 40:15

Mark 9:47-48, the worm does not die and there is fire. Found in Judith 16:17

Mark 14:61-62, "...are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed One: And Jesus said to him, I AM." Found in Wisdom 2:13.

Luke 1:19, "I am Gabriel, who stand in the presence of GOD...". Found in Tobit 12:15.

Luke 1:28,42, "Blessed are you among women..." Found in Judith 13:18

Luke 1:52, in the magnificat the mighty fall replaced by the lowly. Found in Sirach 10:14

Luke 2:29-30, Simons declaration that now he may die because he has seen. Found in Tobit 11:9

Luke 2:37, "...as a widow...She never left the temple, but worshiped night and day with fasting and prayer." Found in Judith 8:4-6.

Luke 13:29, "...and they will come from the east and the west..." Found in Baruch 4:37

Luke 14:13, "...when you give a feast, invite the poor, the crippled, the lame...".
Similar to Tobit 4:17.

Luke 21:24, "And they will fall by the edge of the sword..." Found in Sirach 28:18

Luke 24:4, "...two men stood by them in dazzling raiment." Found in 2Maccabees 3:26.

John 1:1-3, All things were made through the Word of GOD. Found in Wisdom 9:1.

John 3:13, "No one has ascended to heaven..." Found in Baruch 3:29

John 4:48, "...signs and wonders..." Found in Wisdom 8:8

John 5:18, Jesus called GOD His Father. Found in Wisdom 2:16

John 6:35-59, the Eucharistic discourse. Found in Sirach 24:21

John 10:22, "Now there took place at Jerusalem the feast of the dedication...".
This feast can only be found in 1Maccabees 4:52-59, and 2Maccabees 10:5-8.
How can anyone who rejects the Deuterocanonicals, know anything about the Feast of the Dedication?

John 14:23, "...If anyone love Me, he will keep My word...". This is in Sirach 2:18.

John 15:6, fruitless branches will be cut off. Found in Wisdom 4:5

John 16:15, "All things that the Father has are mine." Found in Wisdom 2:13.

Acts 10:34, GOD shows no partiality. Found in Sirach 35:12

Acts 17:29, false gods compared to gold and silver. Found in Wisdom 13:10

Rom 1:18-25, Knowledge of GOD and ignorance of idolatry. Found in Wisdom 13:1-10

Rom 1:20, GOD's existence is seen in nature. Found in Wisdom 13:1

Rom 1:24-27, idolatry leads to sexual perversion. Found in Wisdom 14:12, 14:24-27

Rom 2:11, GOD is not a respector of persons. Found in Sirach 35:15

Rom 4:17, Abraham is the father of many nations. Found in Sirach 44:19

Rom 5:12, death entered the world through sin. Found in Wisdom 2:24

Rom 9:21, " is not the potter master of his clay...". Found in Wisdom 15:7

Rom 10:6, "...Who will go up into heaven..." Found in Baruch 3:29.

Rom 11:33, "...How inscrutable are His judgments and how unsearchable are His ways."
Found in Judith 8:14.

1Cor 2:16, "...who has known the mind of the Lord...". Found in Wisdom 9:13

1Cor 6:13, "...food for the belly and belly for food...". Similar to Sirach 36:20, 37:28-30

1Cor 8:5-6, many gods but one GOD. Similar to Wisdom 13:3

1Cor 10:1, under a cloud and passing through the sea. Found in Wisdom 19:7

1Cor 10:9-10, "...perished by serpents and destroyed by the destroyer."
Almost perfectly matched in Judith 8:24-25.

1Cor 10:20, "...they sacrifice to demons, not to God...". Found in Baruch 4:7.

Eph 1:17, the Spirit of Wisdom. Found in Wisdom 7:7

Eph 6:14-17, "...breastplate, armour, sword, etc...". Found in Wisdom 5:17-20

1Tim 6:15, GOD as sovereign of the world. Found in 2Maccabees 12:15

2Tim 4:8, crown of justice. Similar to Wisdom 5:16

Heb 1:3, "...brightness of His glory..." Similar to Wis 7:26-27

Heb 4:12, GOD's word as a sword. Similar to Wisdom 18:15-16

Heb 11:5, Enoch being taken up. Found in Wisdom 4:10 and Sirach 44:16

Heb 11:35, "...Others were tortured, refusing to accept release, that they might find a better resurrection." The only place in the Old Testament in which you will find reference to that is
2Macc 7:1-29. How do you, who do not have 2Maccabees, explain that?
Note! The first half of Heb 11:35 is found in 1Kings 17:23 and 2Kings 4:36.

Heb 11:38, "...wandering in the deserts, mountains...".
This is found in 1Maccabees 2:28-30 and 2Maccabees 5:27.

Heb 12:12, drooping hands and weak knees. Found in Sirach 25:23

James 1:19, be quick to hear and slow to speak. Found in Sirach 5:10-11

James 2:23, reckoned as righteous. Found in 2Maccabees 2:52

James 3:13, perform his works in meekness. Found in Sirach 3:17

James 5:3, silver that rusts and laying up treasure. Found in Sirach 29:10-11

James 5:6, condemning and killing the righteous man. Found in Wisdom 2:10-20

1Pet 1:6-7, "...gold which is tried by fire...". See Wisdom 3:5-6 and Sirach 2:5

1Pet 1:17, we will be judged according to out works and deeds. Found in Sirach 16:12

2Pet 2:7, GOD rescued the righteous man, Lot. Found in Wisdom 10:6

1John 3:17, "If someone who has worldly means sees a brother in need and refuses him compassion, how can the love of GOD remain in him?" Found in Tobit 4:7.

Rev 1:18, power over death and gates of hell. Found in Wisdom 16:13

Rev 5:7, GOD seated on a throne. Found in Sirach 11:6

Rev 8:3-4, prayers of the saints presented to GOD by angels. Found in Tobit 12:12-15

Rev 8:7, raining hail and fire. Found in Wisdom 16:22 and Sirach 39:29

Rev 9:3, killing by locusts. Found in Wisdom 16:9

Rev 11:19, the new Ark of the Covenant prophesied. Found in 2Maccabees 2:6-8

Rev 17:14, King of Kings. Found in 2Maccabees 13:4

Rev 19:1, a great crowd saying Halleluia. Found in Tobit 13:18

Rev 19:11, the Lord on a horse. Found in 2Maccabees 3:25

Rev 21:18, "And the material of its wall was jasper; but the city itself was pure gold, like pure glass." Similar to Tobit 13:18.


These are just a few that I have found, and with very little effort. There are references listed for all of the Deuterocanonical books. Most of them were found just by reading the cross references in Bibles. There are many more.


DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW TESTAMENT CANON:

AD 51-125:
The New Testament books are written, but during this same period other early Christian writings are produced--for example, the Didache (c. AD 70), 1 Clement (c. 96), the Epistle of Barnabas (c. 100), and the 7 letters of St. Ignatius of Antioch (c. 107).

AD 140:
Marcion, a businessman in Rome, taught that there were two Gods:
Yahweh, the cruel God of the Old Testament, and Abba, the kind father of the New Testament. Marcion eliminated the Old Testament as scriptures and, since he was anti-Semitic, kept from the New Testament only 10 letters of Paul and 2/3 of Luke's gospel (he deleted references to Jesus's Jewishness). Marcion's "New Testament", the first to be compiled, forced the mainstream Church to decide on a core canon: the four Gospels and Letters of Paul.

AD 200:
The periphery of the canon is not yet determined. According to one list, compiled at Rome c. AD 200 (the Muratorian Canon), the NT consists of the 4 gospels; Acts; 13 letters of Paul (Hebrews is not included); 3 of the 7 General Epistles (1-2 John and Jude); and also the Apocalypse of Peter.

AD 367:
The earliest extant list of the books of the NT, in exactly the number and order in which we presently have them, is written by Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, in his Festal letter # 39 of 367 A.D..

AD 382:
Pope Damasus I, in a letter, listed the New Testament books in their present number and order.

AD 393:
The Council of Hippo affirmed the Canon written by Bishop Athanasius.

AD 397:
The Council of Carthage reaffirmed the Canons of the Old and New Testaments.

AD 1442:
At the Council of Florence, the entire Church recognized the 27 books, though does not declare them unalterable. This council confirmed the Roman Catholic Canon of the Bible which Pope Damasus I had published a thousand years earlier.

AD 1536:
In his translation of the Bible from Greek into German, Luther removed 4 N.T. books (Hebrews, James, Jude, and Revelation) and placed them in an appendix saying they were less than canonical.

AD 1546:
At the Council of Trent, the Catholic Church reaffirmed once and for all the full list of 27 books as traditionally accepted.




Some final notes...
Interestingly, some Protestants who have studied the origins of the Canons of Scripture, accept the decisions of Pope St. Damasus I, and the various councils when they finalized the New Testament canon, but reject the decisions of the same councils for the canon of the Old Testament. In doing so, they have to admit that the Catholic Church, by infallible decision, determined the canon of the New Testament. By whose authority then, do they reject the canon of the Old Testament, which was decided by the same Bishops at the same council?
Here is a perfect example of acceptance of "half of the truth".

The only way Protestants can know which are the inspired books of the Bible is for them to accept the teaching of the Catholic Church. If this is not acceptable, then please, someone show me the listing of the inspired books in the Bible?



Is The Catholic Church The Mother Of The Bible, Or The Daughter?



By simple deduction...
The Catholic Church was founded at the end of Christ's
ministry on earth, or about 29-30 A.D..
The first book of the New Testament was not even written
until about 20 years later.
The Catholic Church could not possibly have come from the Bible.
Instead, the Bible came from the Catholic Church.
Consequently, the Catholic Church is the mother of the Bible, and not the daughter.
By the time Revelation, the last book of the Bible, was written around 100 A.D.,
the Catholic Church was already on its fifth
Pope, St. Evaristus.



Compiled by Bob Stanley, July 12, 1999
Updated October 15, 2004
Updated November 29, 2008

 
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